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閱讀 14898 次 歷史版本 1個 創建者:dd (2012/8/31 14:55:17)  最新編輯:寂寞如歌 (2018/3/1 9:34:12)
禹碑
拼音:yǔ bēi (yu bei)
同義詞條:《岣嶁碑》,岣嶁碑,禹王碑,神禹銘,岣嶁銘
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禹碑
禹碑
   禹碑,又稱岣嶁碑、禹王碑。原在湖南省衡山縣,現置紹興禹廟。相傳為大禹治水時所立,因史料記載母碑位于衡陽岣嶁,又名岣嶁碑。碑文分9行共77個字,文字如蝌蚪,既不同于甲骨和鐘鼎文,也不同于籀文蝌蚪,文字奇詭,文字有走樣甚至出現筆誤,但確是有所根據,并非向壁虛造,為春秋戰國時刻石。而碑文的具體內容一直被古文字學家爭議考證了幾百年。有學者認為這是大禹治水的記功碑,但也有學者通過研究認為是一篇登高祭山之辭。
 
  《岣嶁碑》和倉頡書夜郎天書仙居蝌蚪文東巴文字等同等地位,被認為是中國現已發現的八種神秘、有待破解的原始文字或符號,被喻為古文字研究中的哥德巴赫猜想

由來傳說

 
  自古傳說,大禹治水之初,在南岳衡山曾得到當年黃帝南巡時留下的《金簡玉書》。遵照書中要旨,歷盡艱辛十三載,“三過家門而不入”,終于“隨山導水功成”。于是,大禹在衡山云密峰,將治水過程中對近臣的說教、慰勉,并祭天的禱詞,刻石以銘記。這就是流傳千古的“禹王碑”。晉代文人羅含所著《湘中記》內,即有關于“神禹碑”的記述。

原碑與拓本

相關事件

禹碑
禹碑
  岣嶁碑源于湖南衡山的主峰岣嶁山。相傳黃帝南巡衡山時曾留下“玉牒”,夏禹依其指點,制服了洪水,大功告成后,將“玉牒”送回岣嶁山,立下此碑,故被稱為“禹碑”,即記載大禹治水的功績。晉羅含《湘中記》說:“岣嶁山有玉牒,禹按之以治水。上有神禹碑。”《史記·夏本紀》說過夏禹治水曾經到衡山,但是否有神禹碑,卻無佐證。

  唐永貞元年(805年),大文豪韓愈由粵北上,路過衡山,登臨游覽,遍尋神禹碑,踏破鐵鞋無覓處,失望之余,寫了七言古詩一首《岣嶁山》。劉禹錫《寄呂衡州》詩也說:“傳聞祝融峰,上有《神禹銘》。古石瑯千姿,秘文龍虎形。”僅僅是聞傳而已。宋大理學家朱熹也曾到岣嶁山尋訪岣嶁碑,終無所獲,因此在《韓文考異》說:韓愈所謂“岣嶁山尖神禹碑”乃“傳聞之誤”。南宋王象之《與地紀勝》說:“禹碑在岣嶁峰,又傳在衡山縣密云峰”,連碑址在何也不敢肯定了。

  傳說南宋嘉定五年(1212年),文人何致,曾在衡山山間看到了禹碑,臨摹下來。后來原碑毀壞,便翻刻在岳麓書院。以后,岣嶁碑的拓本便在河南、四川、浙江、山東等省傳開了。
 
  民國四年版《辭源》對“岣嶁碑”條注解時,先肯定“夏禹治水時所書,石刻之最古者,亦稱‘禹碑’,在衡山縣云密峰,凡七十七字”,而接下來的后一句則是“近人疑為明楊慎偽造”。
禹碑原碑遺址。1995年,村民王大成在此建起了房子。碑位于房子后方廚房左側,被砌入墻體內,加之碑刻巨石高大,上部被打掉,用作從屋后上樓的石梯。)
禹碑原碑遺址。1995年,村民王大成在此建起了房子。碑位于房子后方廚房左側,被砌入墻體內,加之碑刻巨石高大,上部被打掉,用作從屋后上樓的石梯。)
 
  1958年長沙文獻機構曾將《禹碑》拓片寄往位于北京的中國科學院,請教于古文字學家郭沫若。但其復函只有“秘不可究”4個字。

文字記載

  關于衡山《禹碑》最早的文字記載,見于西晉和南北朝時代。晉羅含《湘中記》:“岣嶁山有玉牒,禹按其文以治水,上有禹碑。”南朝宋徐靈期《南岳記》:“云密峰有禹治水碑,皆蝌蚪文字。”“夏禹導山通瀆,刻石名山之巔。”二者所記地點不一,一說在岣嶁峰(即祝融峰),一說在云密峰。其后,許多文人墨客所述地點岐異。至南宋嘉定、紹定(1208-1233)年間,張世南《游宦紀聞》載:何賢良(名致,字子一)于嘉定五年(1212)游南岳,至祝融峰下,遇一樵夫說見過一石碑,有數十字,何推測是“禹碑”,于是請樵夫作前導,“過隱真屏,復渡一二小澗,攀蘿捫葛”,找到石碑。他當即用紙拓摹。過長沙時,乃摹刻于岳麓書院后山巨石之上。又據《輿地紀勝》載,何賢良所拓《禹碑》“摹刻于岳麓書院,皆蝌蚪文字,凡七十七字。”
 
  唐宋以前南岳衡山是否有禹碑,或果真有大禹親自題寫的“真跡”碑,現在已無法考證,成為千古之謎,當然也不能完全否定。而南宋何賢良所拓摹的《禹碑》,應該是真實的,非其偽造。由何賢良摹刻的《禹碑》至今屹立于岳麓山上,習稱《禹王碑》,與史載相符,碑文共七十七字,形似蝌蚪,與篆文相去甚遠,但與商周甲骨文和金文比較接近,應屬商周或商周以前的文字。其所拓摹的《禹碑》原物,已不復存于祝融峰腰。

內容解讀

 
  早在明代就開始了岣嶁碑文字破解,明朝人楊慎沈鎰郎瑛、楊時喬(楊廷相)四家的解釋,都認為碑文與大禹治水有關,其中以楊慎的解釋影響最大。由于各家解釋都沒有確立相應規則,也沒有提出釋文的充分理由,甚至在難以解釋得通的情況下,提出由做夢而來,因此令人難以信服。
 
  近現代學者郭沫若鉆研了3年時間,也只認識碑文中的3個字。不過,這被破譯的3個蝌蚪文是否準確,一直缺乏有力的證據。

  當代有曹錦炎、劉志一兩家的解釋,前者認為是戰國時代越國太子代表其父越王上南岳祭拜的頌詞,后者認為是歌頌楚莊王滅庸國,碑立于2673年前。這兩家解釋都推翻了傳統觀點,成為一家之言,但也沒有最終定論,也沒有人來下最終定論。

釋文(楊慎)

楊慎釋詞
楊慎釋詞
 
  自明嘉靖以來,諸家對岳麓山《禹王碑》的碑文多有釋文,大部分字的譯釋是相同的,但其中有10余字,常常相左,文意出入也很大。現將最早的明嘉靖年間楊慎的釋文抄錄如下:

  承帝曰咨:翼輔佐卿,洲渚與登,鳥獸之門。參身洪流,
  而明發爾興。久旅忘家,宿岳麓庭。智營形折,心罔弗長。
  往求平定,華岳泰衡。宗疏事裒,勞余神   ,郁塞昏徙,
  南瀆衍亨。衣制食備,萬國其寧。竄舞永奔!
 

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